Menu

Naghma A Qaiyum

I Need Feedback NOT Suggestion.....

header photo

Blog posts

Artificial Intelligence : Impacts and Policies

 


 

In the past several years, the topic of Artificial Intelligence (AI) have advanced rapidly. Most of the people who are reading and talking about AI concerns are commonly asking the same question, “If machines can do tasks normally requiring human intelligence, will there be jobs left for humans?”

In my view, this is a wrong question. There are plenty of horrible jobs still left for the humans, but as the AI making its place, the requirements is to study and consider the policies to be implied and implemented by the humans over the function. 

Governments of various countries like France, Canada, Japan, US and many others around the world responded by developing AI strategies.

There have been various optimistic and pessimistic views on the impact of AI on society are widespread. Many say that it will be a boosting revolution for the world in the coming time whereas some even warn that rapid advances in AI could transform society for the worse.  

More optimistically, AI could enhance productivity so dramatically that people have plenty of income and little unpleasant work to do regardless of whether one adopts a pessimistic or optimistic view, policy will shape how AI affects society. 

 

How we define AI?

 

Before talking about the policies, let us first define what it is. Artificial intelligence is simply defined as “the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence”. It is the recent excitement in computer science driven by advances in machine learning based on the huge data and predictions.

Here I will discuss how AI is likely to have widespread consequences as a general purpose technology 

There are two aspects of AI policy: 

First, regulatory policy has an impact on the speed of diffusion of the technology and the form that the technology takes. 

Second, a number of policies focus on mitigating potential negative consequences of AI with respect to labour markets and antitrust concerns. 

 

Policies that will influence the diffusion of AI

Machine learning uses data to make predictions. The biggest constraint on AI in many settings is the ability to acquire useful data because the function used for decision making is depends on this. This creates privacy concerns. Therefore, privacy policy has a direct impact on the ability of organisations to build and implement AI. Too little privacy protection means that consumers may be unwilling to participate in market transactions where their data are vulnerable. Too much privacy regulation means that firms cannot use data to innovate. Perhaps more than any other regulation, rules around privacy are likely to influence the speed and direction of the application of AI in practice.  

Liability rules will also impact the diffusion of AI. Firms will be less likely to invest in the development of AI products in the absence of clear liability rules. If any accident or an unpredictable event occurs, it is a general question about the liability, whoever involved in the development of the autonomous product like the AI software firm, manufacturer, developer, data provider, telecommunications, etc

Without clear rules on who is liable, all may hesitate to invest for it. If, for example, autonomous vehicles would save lives, should manufacturers of non-autonomous vehicles be held to higher standards than current law requires? This would accelerate diffusion of the safer technology. In contrast, if the increases in liability focus are primarily on newer technology, then as a result, diffusion will slow.

Other most significant long-run policy issues relate to the potential changes to the distribution of the wealth generated by the widespread use of AI. In other words, AI may increase inequality over the people. If AI is like other types of information technology, it is likely to be skill-biased. The people who benefit most from AI will be educated people who already are doing relatively well. These people are also more likely to own the machines. Policies to address the consequences of AI for inequality relate to the social safety net.  

Another policy question around the diffusion of AI relates to whether it will lead to monopolisation of industry. The leading companies in AI are large in terms of revenue, profits, and especially market capitalisation (high multiples on earnings). This has led to an increase in antitrust scrutiny of the leading technology firms from governments. Much of this antitrust scrutiny focuses on the role of these firms as platforms, not on their use of AI.

 One of the very important feature that makes AI different is the importance of data. Firms with huge data can build better AI. Whether this leads to economies of scale and the potential for monopolisation depends on whether a small lead early in the development cycle will be able to fight in the long-run advantage.

Much of economic policy for AI is simply economic policy. For the diffusion of AI, it resembles innovation policy. For the consequences of AI, it resembles public policy (the social safety net) and competition policy (antitrust). For the successful implementation of AI over the system, the policies need to be monitored and revised; only then such a powerful technology would successfully be able to transform the world in all the sectors. 

Go Back

CHILD LABOR : A CURSE TO THE NATION

 


 

 

As per the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, a "Child" is defined as any person below the age of 14. Child labour is the practice of having children being engaged in economic activity, on a part- or full-time basis which includes the domestic help too.

Though it is a cognizable criminal offence to employ a child for any work, a large number of children are involved in labour works frequently. The practice deprives children of their childhood, and is harmful to their physical and mental development. It is a common understood that children who work, instead of going to school, remain illiterate fully or partially which limits their ability to contribute to their own well being as well as to the community they live in.

Child labour has long term adverse effects for nation. It is a fact that poverty, lack of good schools and the growth of the informal economy are considered to be the key causes of child labour in India.

But it is not impossible for the government to stop the children involvement in the labour works. If the children are stopped from contributing to the financial condition of the family for few years and let them develop to their potential for education and skills, later, the same child (might will grown as an adult or adolescent), would be in a condition to contribute to the better way or with better wages.

Some other causes of Child Labour in India are cheap wages and accessibility to factories that can produce the maximum amount of goods for the lowest possible price. Also the corruption in the government authorities plays a major role in promoting child labour because laws that should be enforced to prevent child labour are not fully implemented because of the corrupt government.

It is not only a matter of individual to understand, but the government must understand that to keep the economy prospering, a vital criterion is to have an educated workforce equipped with relevant skills for the needs of the industries. The young labourers today, who are not so capable of earning much, can be part of India’s human capital tomorrow. Child labour undoubtedly results in a trade-off with human capital accumulation.

Child labour in India are employed with the majority (70%) in agriculture, some in low-skilled labour-intensive sectors such as sari or carpet weaving or as domestic helpers, which require neither formal education nor training, but more worrying condition is that the some percentage of children are also involved in heavy industry such as coal mining, diamond manufacturing, fireworks manufacturing, or any other hazardous industry. The nation does not only lose future human capitals in this sense, but also lead to the life loss of the country.

The government must understand that there are tremendous economic benefits for developing nations by sending children to school instead of work. Without education, children do not gain the necessary skills such as English or any other language literacy, general education and technical aptitude that will increase their productivity to enable them to secure higher-skilled jobs in future with higher wages that will lift them out of poverty.

Go Back

LIFE OF THE PEOPLE ON THE LEVEL OF HIGHEST RISK DUE TO HEAT WAVES

 

 

It has been continuously in the studies for last few decades regarding climate change and the impacts over the life of the people. The global temperature is rising at faster rate. The higher temperatures mean that heat waves are likely to happen more often and last longer, too. These heat waves can be so dangerous that can cause illnesses such as heat cramps and heat stroke, or even, there can be death too.

These deadly heat waves, triggered due to climate change can even be so intensive that it can also lead to a chain reaction of other changes around the world too. That's because increasing air temperature not only affects the human life but also the oceans, weather patterns, snow and ice, and even the plants and animals too. The warmer it gets, the more severe the impacts on people and the environment will be.

According to a figure by The World Health Organization, the heat stress, linked to climate change, may add 38,000 extra deaths a year worldwide between 2030 and 2050 and figure is likely to escalate.

At present, the North China Plain which is a home to 400 million people, faces the initial greatest risk to human life from rising temperatures of any location on earth.

After these Heat Waves, people cannot survive unprotected in the open for more than six hours at a wet-bulb temperature - which reflects the combined effects of heat and humidity - of 35 degrees Celsius (95°F),  as the study mentions.

In southern Europe, serious drought occurs every 10 years, 1 to 4 billion more people suffer water shortages; up to 5 billion gain water but they could suffer increased floods. Another 150 to 500 million people are at risk of hunger (if carbon fertilisation is weak) and approx 1 to 3 million more people die from malnutrition

Another 7 to 300 million people are affected by coastal flooding.

Also the heat waves could make it too hot to grow certain crops, and droughts caused by climate change could reduce the amount of water available for irrigation. Due to this, there would be scarcity of food on the planet. Climate change is also likely to cause stronger storms and more floods, which can also damage crops. Also the higher temperatures and changing rainfall patterns could help some kinds of weeds and pests to spread to new areas.

As climate change causes precipitation patterns to shift, some areas that currently have plenty of water to make hydropower might not have enough water in the future. Without enough water to produce electricity, these areas could experience power shortages and blackouts. They might have to use other energy sources to make more of the electricity they need, and if these sources are fossil fuels like coal, oil, or natural gas, more greenhouse gases will be added to the atmosphere.

Some of the large Himalayan glaciers may get disappeared, which would be affecting millions of near by population. Also due to this the ocean acidity continues to rise and as a consequence, marine ecosystems are seriously disrupted.

Sea level rise threatens small islands, low-lying coastal areas such as Florida,  and major world cities such as New York, London, and Tokyo, and in India too. Jakarta had been in news for its sinking situation.

As a result of the hot waves, people who are poor will have a deadly lives as they will not be able to explore much to air-conditioning or any other modern sources of living, This is because their bodies cannot shed heat, as sweat does not evaporate when it is very humid, which can lead to organ failure. Other who will use more air conditioning to stay cool,  electricity shortages and blackouts could increase. Because more electricity will be cosnumed, which would not be possible due to shortage of water, so most electricity  again will be produced by burning fossil fuels, as a result, more greenhouse gases will be added to the atmosphere.

As the Earth gets warmer, plants and animals that need to live in cold places, like on mountaintops or in the Arctic, might not have a suitable place to live. If the Earth keeps getting warmer, up to one–fourth of all the plants and animals on Earth could become extinct within next 6-7 decades. Every plant and animal plays a role in the ecosystem and maintains the balance, losing one species can affect many others and even the balance in the nature can get spoilt.

Go Back

HOMELESSNESS: A Single Problem but the Cause of Many

 


 

During the days in Delhi, Once I saw a young woman, Deepa (while giving her some help, I had asked her name) with her belongings in plastic bags on the street side. I couldn’t guess her age, or even did not know since how long she was living there, but seeing her things kept around, and her clothes hanging on the railing, I could guess, it might have been a long time.

After reading this description, it would not be right to make a guess that this was a new thing I saw on the street of Delhi. This is a common scene, easily available to see everywhere in India. When it rains, they cover themselves with plastic sheets and even from the severe cold in winter or the intense heat waves in summer, they have very little protection for themselves.

The worse thing is that even they sometimes are harassed by the police or the locals also.

 

 

Thousands of people, including women, men and children arrive to the big cities everyday from villages and small towns, looking for better opportunities but most of them remain homeless. Many end up in slums and other informal settlements. Others settle under bridges, flyovers, on pavements and road dividers.

Globally, at least 150 million people, or about 2 percent of the population, are estimated to be homeless. More than a fifth of the population lacks adequate housing.

Discussing about the  causes of the homelessness are the said to be poverty, lack of affordable housing, alcohol and drug addiction, family breakdown, civil conflict and environmental disasters, but there is no perfect reason for a human to remain alive without having a roof on his/her head.

Many think that there is no quick solution of ending up urban homelessness because the urban population is rapidly increasing and there is no planning of the affordable housing matching with the increased figure of the urban population. As the cities are growing at a remarkable rate, and that puts a strain on the government's capacity to respond to the needs of the people, including the homeless, it is challenge before the nation which seems tough to meet.

With at least 55 percent of the world's population living in urban centres, homelessness is ever more apparent almost everywhere around the world but our country’s condition is a bit severe, which is forecast to overtake China by 2024 as the world's most populous country, with tens of millions cramming into already crowded cities.

These street dwellers, apart from a painful life, face abusive marriages, suffer violence, sexual harassment, mental exertion, and other anti-social acts which as a result, spoils the generation.

 
Homelessness is not only a single defined problem, that is ‘not having shelter’, but homelessness, as a consequence, generates and re-generates, several major problems, which doesn’t have a remedy, but the birth of ‘permanent spoiling of a human and thus of a nation’ certainly takes place. 

Go Back

TIME MANAGEMENT: The Important Key to Success


When we talk about Time Management, the first question which comes in our mind is whether it is possible to manage the time or how do we define Time Management?

By the term, time management, it seems that we are talking about managing the time but in fact, we cannot manage the time as it is fixed but we can manage all the activities of our life. With the listing of required tasks and motive to attain becomes the time management which is meta-activity with the goal to maximize the overall benefit of a set of other activities within the boundary condition of a limited amount of time.

In other words, when we plan and exercise on the conscious control of the time spent on specific activities, with a motive to increase  effectiveness, efficiency or productivity, it, ultimately, is called the time management.

 Whatever the field of our life is, either it is study, social life, employment, family, and personal interests, everything has its specific demand. The definiteness of time restrict us to achieve everything with the proper understand and fulfillment of the demand. So the time management is an act of handling all the juggles with the balance.

Using time effectively gives the person 'choice' on spending or managing his/her activities at their own time and expediency.

Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects, and goals complying with a due date. Initially, time management was considered just for business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well, like the hobbies and the interests of a person, spending time with the friends and family, etc. A time management system is a designed combination of processes, tools, techniques and methods. Time management is usually a necessity in any  project development it determines the project completion, the required time and scope.

The major themes arising from the different study on time management include the following:

  •   Setting of priorities
  •   Creating an environment conducive to effectiveness
  • Carrying out activity around priorities
  • The related process of reduction of time spent on non-priorities
  • Incentives to modify behavior to ensure compliance with time-related deadlin

Another scientific study defines the time management in the following way too, which is termed as POSEC method.

POSEC method

1.   Prioritize – It is about the prioritizing your time and define your life by goals.

2.   Organize – It is about organizing the things you have to accomplish regularly to be successful.

3.   Streamline – It is about those things you may not like to do, but must do.

4.   Economize – It refers to things you should do or may even like to do, but they're not pressingly urgent.

5.   Contribute – It is about paying attention to the few remaining things that makes a difference.

During the process of Time Management, there comes an important point, and that is about creating an effective environment with an organized way to work. Here the most important thing which is needed to monitor is the insulation, isolation and delegation. When we start implementing the time management new in our life, the most considerable thing to fight is the recovery from the bad habits of time non-utilization. If we win over this, we start getting the command over the time management.

Setting priorities and goals

Work List versus To Do List always is like a cricket match where the toss matters. So it must be strongly associated with the strategies based on the recommendation to set personal goals.

These goals are recorded and may be broken down into a project, an action plan, or a simple task list or even smaller modules. For individual tasks or for goals, an importance rating may be established, deadlines may be set, and priorities assigned. This process results in a plan with a task list or a schedule or calendar of activities. Initially a periodical review is always required to check the effectiveness of the time management. This is done in various ways, as follows:

ABCD analysis

This is the most implemented way to organize tasks and has been used in business management for a long time. It is the categorization of large data into smaller groups and sub-groups. These groups are often marked A, B, C and D—proper naming required to recognize. Activities are ranked by these general criteria:

  A – Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important,
   B – Tasks that are important but not urgent,
  C – Tasks that are unimportant but urgent,
D - Tasks that are unimportant and not urgent

 

Implementation of goals

A task list (i.e. the to-do list) is a list of tasks to be completed, such as chores or steps toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative or supplement to memory.

Task lists are used in self-management,  business management, project management software developments and other projects too. It may involve more than one list too.

When one of the items on a task list is accomplished, the task is checked or crossed off. The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil, usually on a note pad or clip-board. Task lists can also have the form of paper or software checklists.

How to organize the Task list

Task lists are often diarised and tiered. The simplest tiered system includes a general to-do list to record all the tasks the person needs to accomplish, and a daily to-do list which is created each day by transferring tasks from the general to-do list. An alternative is to create a "not-to-do list", to avoid unnecessary tasks is also important.

 This planning of the tasks helps you getting all your work done, every day, and if you are unable to achieve, it helps you diagnose where you are going wrong and what needs to change.

In the process of doing this, some level of detail must be taken for granted for a task system to work. For example, rather than put "clean the kitchen", "clean the bedroom", and "clean the bathroom", it is more efficient to put "housekeeping" and reduce the system's administrative load in maintaining all the categories with the sub-categories.

It is said that if you are able to manage your all activities successfully, you have opened the first door to success. You will feel that in the same specified time, either you are able to play all the important roles defined for you and do all the activities assigned to you, but if you are not able to manage your roles and the respective activities in your specified time, the time passes and passes and nothing comes in hand. So managing the activities in the specified time can bring everything for you and if not done, can take everything from you, neither the personal life’s pleasure nor the professional life’s achievement.

 

It is said that if you are able to manage your all activities successfully, you have opened the first door to success. You will feel that in the same specified time, either you are able to play all the important roles defined for you and do all the activities assigned to you, but if you are not able to manage your roles and the respective activities in your specified time, the time passes and passes and nothing comes in hand. So managing the activities in the specified time can bring everything for you and if not done, can take everything from you, neither the personal life’s pleasure nor the professional life’s achievement.  

 

Go Back

Skill Development is required, and more than that, the Contribution to attain it

 

 


Having gone through various news matters and articles, I have observed that skill development has been one of the most talked subjects for last few years.We do realize that India has the largest number of youths (10-24 years), more than 300 million, and there remains tremendous potential for skill development, as in the coming years, our developing nation would depend on this large number of youths. Though government has announced several initiatives and programs for the skill development and training, nevertheless the contribution from the other bodies are equally important.

The world is changing very fast. It is today vastly different from what it was a ten – fifteen years ago, day by day new explosion of technology has reduced geographical barriers and created a highly mobile global workforce.

There is no doubt that young people are the innovators, creators with creativity and leaders of the future. But they can transform the future only if they have attained right skills for making it.

Many people have been discussing on the importance of skill development for this largest youth nation but in my opinion, it is not a matter of such a great debate. I don’t feel it is a choice but a mandate requirement of time, both for the nation and for the individual. If not happens, according to the need, the nation will lose the worth of its precious wealth (in the form of youths).

Economic growth of the nation depends on productivity of industry and its people. But people can only be productive if they are provided with good health, quality education, relevant skills, and are made aware of livelihood opportunities presented by the economic growth around them. This brings us to the question of how can we make skill development effective as a key strategy for national development. With a centred focus on entrepreneurship as well as employment, and having my own strong personal view on the same, I have taken few important initiatives for the skill development of the people through my non-profit Welfare Organization.

 

We work on the development of skill for youths, male and female, both, so that they can earn their livelihood and survive a better life. It is the mission of my organization is to provide the vocational training to the youths with latest mode of working and technology which helps them to get works at better wages.We have seen that in the rural and sub-urban areas of the country, there are still some people who don’t even have the basic knowledge of internet and computer. My organization is bringing the knowledge of technology available to those areas so that they can catch the pace with the speed of technology development.

 

Apart from this, we have provided tailoring classes with updated technologies to more than hundred young men and women, who, after completing the  courses successfully, have received the relevant work opportunities and are earning satisfactorily. The figure, we had begun with, has been planned to increase with the larger areas. Other mechanical work training have also been provided to a large number of youths for having good work opportunities where they will have the larger scope of work and will not be rejected because of not having updated work skill, as, in every field of works, the style has been continuously changing.

 

Go Back

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: THE NEW FACE OF CIVILIZATION DEVELOPMENTS

 


 

What really the AI is ?

Civilization on the earth till now is nothing but a product of intelligence, with having lots of experiments and researches; the same we are going to know today is Artificial Intelligence, which is the amplification of Natural Intelligence with Machine Intelligence. It has the potential of helping civilization flourish like never before, the only thing is to learn manage keeping the technology beneficial.

Presently the Artificial Intelligence (AI) is progressing rapidly; either it is SIRI or the self driving cars, robotics, sensory systems, Neural Computing or many others. The conclusion of the saying is that AI can encompass anything from Google’s search algorithms to IBM’s Watson to autonomous weapons, while science fiction often portrays AI as robots with human-like characteristics.

Why need of Research AI Safety

The AI’s impact on society beneficial motivates for more and more research in many areas, from economics and law to technical topics such as defence, verification, security etc.

Artificial Intelligence which has been designed till now and the scientists are making it use of are the weak AI because these are getting in use of weak tasks like driving a car, face recognition, data manipulation, solving equations, etc.

The researchers have continuously been in effort to create Strong AI which would be intended to outperform humans at nearly every cognitive task.

In the long term of this research and over the possibilities of the success for the same, an important question arises, i.e. what will happen if an AI system becomes better than humans at all cognitive tasks.

 Though designing smarter AI systems which would outperform humans at all tasks is itself a cognitive task. Such a system could potentially undergo recursive self-improvement, triggering an intelligence explosion leaving human intellect far behind. By inventing revolutionary new technologies, such a superintelligence might help us eradicate war, disease, and poverty, and so the creation of strong AI might be the biggest event in human history. Some experts have expressed concern, though, that it might also be the last, unless we learn to align the goals of the AI with ours before it becomes superintelligent.

There are some who question whether strong AI will ever be achieved, and others who insist that the creation of superintelligent AI is guaranteed to be beneficial.

The researches do recognize the possibilities of both, but also recognize the potential for an artificial intelligence system to intentionally or unintentionally cause great harm

Most researchers agree that a superintelligent AI is unlikely to exhibit human emotions like love or hate, and that there is no reason to expect AI to become intentionally benevolent or malevolent.

How can AI be dangerous?

Instead, when considering how AI might become a risk, experts think two scenarios most likely:

  •  Programming may go to do something devastating:

The risk of doing something devastating is present even with the weak AI also, but grows as levels of AI intelligence and autonomy increase.  Autonomous weapons are artificial intelligence systems that are programmed to kill. If it goes in the hands of the wrong person, these weapons could easily cause mass casualties. Also to win the race, an AI war could take place would be the next phase of mass destruction, as years before, happened in the case of nuclear weapons. 

  •  The AI's goal achieving programmed may cause destructive rather than beneficial

There is also the possibility that AI, for attaining the goal at any cost, since it is programmed to do so, may create a new difficulty.

 For instance, if we ask an obedient intelligent car to take us to a place within the specific time, it might get us there chased by helicopters and splitting lots of things in the way, just to cover the time.

In an another instance, we can say that if an intelligent system is tasked with a ambitious geo-engineering project, it might wreak havoc with our ecosystem as a side effect, and view human attempts to stop it as a threat to be met.

Why we are NOW concern about AI safety: Is it necessary?

Though till now it has been considered as a science fiction, and even the researchers believe that the quest for strong AI would take centuries to succeed, though it is also being considered as a serious fact that this superintelligence may become a truth even in our lifetime.

On the other hand most AI researches also guessed that it may happen before somewhere near 2050-2060. Due to the possibility of this too, it is prudent to start for the safety research,  now since it may take decades to complete the study and prepare for the unexpected result with the strong AIs.

Though we have no sure-fire way of predicting how a super strong AI will behave because it has the potential to become more intelligent than any human. Even the past technological developments can’t help us make a true prediction because we have never created anything that has the ability to outperform us, wittingly or unwittingly. Till now we have been operating the planet control machines, the satellites or the micro machines which can’t be even seen through naked eyes, not because we are the strongest or fastest, but because we are the smartest, and for any reason, if any unpredicted happens, we are assured enough to be remained in control. But, if the intelligence works more than us, it is unpredictable to assume, as talking about the present picture, never knows how to bring it in control.

We have the numerous of proofs that our civilization has flourished as long as we have battled between the growing power of technology and the wisdom with which we manage it. But the same will happen in the case of AI technology, it seems the biggest matter of safety research.

There are many other aspects of AI to be beneficial and harmful for the civilization, but the difference is to do a deep safety research for making the smarter intelligence than us, because if we don’t prove ourselves over smart now, the smarter intelligence will never allow us to make the correction. The smart AI isn’t malevolence but a matter of competence. A super-intelligent strong AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren’t aligned with ours, we have a problem, not the AIs, so before, making them work for us as programmed, their programs must be smarter than them.

 

Go Back

Effects of global warming on South Asia

 


For the last many years several effects of global warming have been predicted and discussed at various levels. These effects not only include steady sea level rise, increased cyclonic activity, and changes in ambient temperature and precipitation patterns, but also economic and social life would be entirely affected.

Through my article, which also includes some of the demographic points also, from different sources including Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), I am trying to bring about a summarized information about the effects and the projected effects of global warming on the subcontinent of South Asia, though it’s a global issue, and discussing about South Asia doesn’t imply that rest of the world is free of the affects.

As per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), depending upon the scenario visualised and the scientific researches, the projected global average surface warming will result in temperature increases worldwide at the end of the 21st Century relative to the end of the 20th Century ranges from 0.6 to 4 °C. 

The Projected changes in the natural and human environment

  • Rise in sea level

At the end of the 20th century when the corresponding sea level rise was 0.18  which has reached to 0.59, (any rapid dynamical changes in the ice flows in future is being excluded in this figure).

The oceans on the planet are being absorbed over 90% of the increased atmospheric heat associated with emissions from human activity. According to the more recent analysis of a number of semi empirical model , it has been predicted that a sea level rise of about 1 metre by the year 2100 will happen.

The ongoing sea level rises have already submerged several low-lying islands in the  Sundarbans , displacing thousands of people. Temperature rises on the Tibetan Plateau, which are causing Himalayan glaciers to retreat. It has been predicted that the historical city of  Badin and Thatta, in the Sindh region of Pakistan would have been swallowed by the sea by 2025, as it is hard to believe but the sea is already encroaching 80 acres of land here, every day.

  • Environmental

The landslides and flooding have increased in the few states of India like Assam. Ecological disasters, such as a 1998 coral bleaching event that killed off more than 70% of corals in the reef ecosystems off Lakshadweep and the Andamans, and was brought on by elevated ocean temperatures tied to global warming, are also projected to become increasingly common.

In South Asia, the first among the countries to be affected by severe climate change is Bangladesh. Its sea level, temperature and evaporation are increasing, and the changes in precipitation and cross boundary river flows are already beginning to cause drainage congestion. Already there is a noticeable reduction in fresh water availability, disturbance of morphologic processes and a higher intensity of flooding and other such disasters

  • Social

More than 50% of people of India and 40% people of Pakistan work in agriculture or many others earn their living in coastal areas and depend on natural resources for their food, shelter and income. Climate Change will have a disproportionate impact on the more than 400 million people in these places. This is because so many depend on natural resources for their food, shelter and income.

  • Economic

The predictions of global warming are obviously not limited to only landslide and temperature increase but it would have a direct impact on GDP too. If the predictions made by IPCC come true, as a result of climate-related factors there would be a shifting growing seasons for major crops such as rice, wheat and maize, production of which could fall by 35-40%

If global temperatures rise by a only 1.5 - 2 °C, around seven million people are projected to be displaced due to, among other factors, submersion of parts of Mumbai and Chennai, whereas in Eastern India, villagers in India's North Eastern state of Meghalaya are also concerned that rising sea levels will submerge neighbouring low-lying Bangladesh, which may result in an influx of refugees into Meghalaya which has very few resources to handle such a drastic situation.

Meghalaya meaning 'Abode (Home) of the Clouds' in Hindi—is home to the towns of Cherapoonji  and Mawsynram, which are known for the highest rainfall and the wettest places in the world. But scientists state that global climate change is causing these areas to experience an increasingly sparse and erratic rainfall pattern and a lengthened dry season, affecting the livelihoods of thousands of villagers who cultivate paddy and maize. Some areas are also supposed to face water shortages.

  • Pollution

Thick haze , mist, fog and smoke, originating from burning biomass in northeastern India and air pollution from large industrial cities in northern states of India, often concentrate inside the Ganges Basin. The Prevailing westerlies carry aerosols along the southern margins of the steep-faced Tibetan Plateau to eastern India and the Bay of Bengal. Dust and black carbon, which are blown towards higher altitudes by winds at the southern faces of the Himalayas, can absorb shortwave radiation and heat the air over the Tibetan Plateau. The net atmospheric heating due to aerosol absorption causes the air to warm and  convect upwards, which increases the concentration of moisture in the mid-troposphere  and provides positive feedback that stimulates further heating of aerosols. 

Pollution of mercury in India is shocking. The environment is being packed with approximately 70 tonnes of mercury per year by existing mercury-cell plants. One gram of mercury is sufficient to pollute a lake of surface area of around 18 - 20 acres that would harm the fish which as a result would be dangerous to consume. 

  • Ocean Acidification

The oceans are currently absorbing about a quarter of the carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere annually and are becoming more acidic as a result, leading to concerns about intensifying impacts on marine ecosystems.

As human-induced emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) build up in the atmosphere, excess CO2 is dissolving into the oceans where it reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid, lowering ocean pH levels ("acidification") and threatening a number of marine ecosystems. Currently, the oceans absorbs about a quarter of the CO2 humans produce every year. Over the last 250 years, the oceans have absorbed 560 billion tons of CO2, increasing the acidity of surface waters by 30%. Although the average oceanic pH can vary on inter-glacial timescales, the current observed rate of change is roughly 50 times faster than known historical change. Regional factors such as coastal upwelling, changes in discharge rates from rivers and glaciers, sea ice loss, and urbanization have created “ocean acidification hotspots” where changes are occurring at even faster rates

Awareness

The South Asian media can contribute their maximum to the increased awareness of climate change and related issues.

No common man is so much aware about such a hazardous impact of global warming.  A qualitative analysis of some mainstream Indian newspapers and journals must strongly pursue the frame of scientific certainty in their coverage of climate change. Alongside, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi media must highlight frames of energy challenge, social progress, public accountability and looming disaster. Till now, the effects of global warming, temperature increase, hazardous gases, etc are considered to limit either only to the school books or environmentalist and a common man never thinks of the danger, which is growing towards him in very next moment. A common man is concerned only with his livelihood, career growth, relationships, social identity, etc, but never about the fact that due to this universal reason, he or his coming generation may lose his life due to the effects of global warming.

People need to become aware of ills of global warming. Mere small initiatives from every individual like planting trees, right disposal of the garbage, etc may bring  on a huge change to cope with the fatal affects of the global warming. This must be explained again and again. If not in one time but may be in many efforts the common man may understand the value of their small contribution.  

 

 

 

 

 

Go Back

Our Education System : The Change is Required

 


 

It is clearly visible that we are making fast progresses in almost every possible field off our life. In the series, we are successful to the great extent in making huge changes for the betterment of education at various levels too, but still I find that there remain some areas of neglect, one of which is the evaluation system. No doubt, we have excellent central and state universities in our country and equally good professional institutes like the IITs and IIMs, yet a lot remains to be done in the education system.

What I realize that being stuck with the age-old examination system to assess the students' capabilities is not the fully positive thing. Sometimes the students scoring 80 to 90 per cent are considered geniuses; whereas as fact it might happen that their understanding of the subject is bad. Our education system at schools and colleges judge a students' knowledge of the topic through a three-hour examination only, no matters they understand it or not.

Students with a full package memory storage force themselves to contain all the required things which are expected to obtain 80-90% marks, and with the planned preparation, all they had studied the previous night, they come in the category of genius.  

This is disadvantageous to both — the student as well as the institution. As the students are aware of the topics relevant from the examination point of view, they only do selective study. In their bid to prepare for the test, they overlook several topics which may hold practical significance but are not expected to be asked in the examinations. The student can’t be said to be completely in sync with the subject.

What I consider that the rote system of learning is the best solution of all these things happening. The students should not be only judged only in the annual or semester examinations, but must be monitored for the progress at regular intervals. For this the rote learning is the easiest and most efficient way to instil knowledge by memorization and regular practices so that it forms a solid foundation on which an intellectual superstructure is to be built.

For a long time, educationists and academicians in our country have debated whether the education system needs a revamp.

Indeed, we need to move with the changing times and a re-consideration is required upon all these things.

There has always been over-emphasis on the theory part of the subject. Students should be made more adept with the practical aspect of the subjects and their understanding towards the concept is the most important, not the memorization of the questions and answers for scoring the particular marks in the exams. If the concept is made clear towards anything, no matters, in the examination, the question is asked this way or that way.  More time of the learning should be spent in the laboratories or the practical camps than merely cramming formulae.

 

Go Back

Women at Work Places

The ongoing waves of sexual misconduct allegations in media, politics, entertainment and tech has placed extra focus on men in positions of power, the study says.

 There is large number of books, seminars and conferences geared towards how women should act to prosper in the workplace but there are very few resources are geared towards educating men on how to build a successful career that promotes workplace inclusion.

 

Women must be included in social outings and team meetings

It has been observed that women are isolated in the workplace for outdoor or unofficial time meetings, but this is hardly the solution. Mentorship, networking and workplace promotion are all equally crucial to a woman's success as that of a man.

If the colleagues are treating the women colleagues with respect, it is not only the enough required thing to support them at professional place. It also means not isolating or ignoring them — and making access equal.

Give women credit for their ideas

Studies and Surveys show that when it comes to meetings, women are more likely to be interrupted, talked over, or have their ideas stolen by male colleagues

There are large numbers of women who work in various industries like tech, gaming and science, and we were discussing the phenomenon lately.

The act of advocating for a female colleague who has been copied and not credited is very important. This not only gives moral strength to the women but also encourages them to bring more and more new ideas.

Hire women, and give them opportunity to work

Everyone agrees that women do  unbelievable jobs but still prefer to hire men in larger numbers. It is evident that the companies with a diverse workforce not only have an increased pool of skill sets, but also excel the performance. The companies should expand their scope for finding more eligible women employees by reaching out to those professional organizations which are geared towards women or attending college job fairs at all-female institutions. Not only this but to ensure that women of all races and communities are also included in their hiring practices, companies should also attend conferences and reach out to organizations geared towards ethnic minorities.

Don't factor a woman's personal life into professional decisions

It is the truth that many times, women are not considered for a promotion, job change or transfer because it is a general assumption that they would not prefer to the professional demands more than the family demands or family requirements. To some extent, it comes to be true also but in some cases, women should be given flexibility towards these decisions.

The opportunities should not be taken away from women only because they are women, rather than giving them the full opportunities they deserve, they are given only the opportunities to work. This should not be done to them.

  Be mindful of harassment

If you are a man, it is not enough for you not to harass a female colleague. You, the men, must play a role in preventing, highlighting and reporting situations in which harassment occurs.

According to my opinion, when female employees get to know that they have a group of people supporting them, and reporting for them, it helps increase their confidence and it leads to them not being quiet.

 

 

Go Back

Women Empowerment: the Big Idea still to Reform

 

 


It is a fact that women in India have made a considerable progress to a great extent, but they still have to struggle against many handicaps and social evils in the male-dominated society. Many evil and masculine forces still exist in the modern Indian society that resists the forward march of its women power.

It is ironical that a country, which prays female goddesses like Goddess Durga, Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Saraswati while praying but when come to interact with the female humans, feel very proud and pleasure to humiliate women in one sense or other.

No doubt, women have been sitting in the important positions in the society, but their true empowerment is still awaited.

Though the nation has developed a lot, but still there are the majority of people here who can’t see the women going ahead. People here still try that the bird should fly using one wing only, and the other wing(the women) are to be kept either idle or should have less effort and contribution.

People seek the welfare of the world having the women ignored, or if given attention, they are done in that way, as if they are something weak or disabled.

Therefore, the inclusion of “Women Empowerment’ is one of the prime goals in the today’s hi-tech and scientific era. Thus, in order to achieve the status of a developed country, India needs to transform its vast women force into an effective human resource and this is possible only through the empowerment of women.

Empowering women to participate fully in economic and social life across all sectors is essential to make stronger economies, compete internationally to attain the agreed goals for development and sustainability, and improve the quality of life for women, men, families, and communities.

What exactly is the women empowerment?

Women empowerment means liberation of women from the fierce and ferocious grips of social, economical, political, caste and gender-based discrimination. It means granting women the freedom to make life choices. Women empowerment does not mean ‘deifying women’ or stooping before them rather it means giving them equal rights and place in the different walks of society. When talking in detail about women empowerment, there come various aspects in our mind which I am trying to discuss here as under:—

Human Rights or Individual Rights: A woman is a living being with functioning senses; creating imagination and thoughts; and not an idle, so she should be able to express freely and independently. Individual empowerment of a woman means to have the self-confidence to articulate and assert the power to negotiate and make decisions.

Educational Aspect of Women Empowerment  - Empowering the women with the knowledge, skills, and self-confidence is the most important and the most necessary tool to participate fully in the development process of the nation. It means making women aware of their rights and developing a confidence to claim them.

Legal and Social Aspect of Women Empowerment There must be a provision of an effective legal structure which is supportive of women empowerment. It means that the gaps between the prescribed law practices and what actually occurs need to be monitored and filled up. Gender equality must be monitored intensely because it implies a society in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, outcomes, rights and obligations in all spheres of life.

Economic and Occupational Aspect of Women Empowerment- It implies that the livelihoods should be owned and managed by women in order to achieve a better quality of material life through sustainable resources. It means reducing the financial dependency of the female on their male counterparts by making them a significant part of the human resource.

What is the Current Scenario on Women Empowerment 

 

Based on the ideas reformed by our founding fathers for women empowerment, many social, economic and political provisions were incorporated in the Indian Constitution. Women in India now participate in many areas such as education, sports, politics, media, art and culture, service sector and science and technology. But due to the deep- rooted traditional mentality in the Indian society, women are still victimized, humiliated, tortured and exploited. Even after almost seven decades of Independence, women are still subjected to discrimination in the social, economic and educational field.

Though there have been numerous of steps taken by government time to time to protect the rights of women, but the government initiatives are bound and limited against legal or the constitutional boundaries. In general, if not particular the rape, humiliation or exploitation; the women face lots of those types of harassments by the men dominated society, which can’t even be complained. So the need is to change the mindset of the people and the society, how to make the vision about the women.

What are the Challenges  in the way of Women Empowerment ?

The most widespread and dehumanizing discrimination against women begin from the birth of a girl child itself. Boys are preferred over girls; hence, female infanticide is known as a common practice in India.

The traditional Indian society is a still a society which is ruled by the diktats of self-proclaimed caste lords who are the guardians of archaic and unjust traditions. They put the burden of traditions, culture, and honor on the shoulders of women and mark their growth.

Still remains the Implementation Gaps Though the government has made lots of programmes to protect the women and their rights like The Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technologies Act and various health programmes like Janani Suraksha Yojana and National Rural Health Mission (NHRM), and many others  in the last seventy years after  independence , but the attention is only on developing and devising new schemes, policies and programmes and have paid less attention to the proper monitoring system and implementation sightedness and that is why, for example, our country has still a skewed sex ratio and a high maternal mortality rate.

Exists some Loopholes in the legal structure Although there are a number of laws to protect women against all sorts of violence yet there has been the significant increase in the episodes of rapes, extortions, acid, attacks etc. This is due to delay in legal procedures and the presence of several loopholes in the functioning of a judicial system.

The male dominance prevails in the society of India and women are forced to remain mute spectators in most of the cases.

What are the Ways ahead to bring the Women Empowerment

Ways start with bridging the deep-rooted biases through sustained reconditioning. It is only possible by promoting the idea of gender equality and uprooting social ideology of male child preferability. This concept of equality should be first developed in each and every household and from there; it should be taken to the society.

 

Education is the most important and indispensable tool for women empowerment. It makes women aware of their rights and responsibilities. Educational achievements of a woman can have fast flow and ripple effects for the particular family and across generations.

Empowering women socially, economically, educationally, politically and legally is not going to be so easy that the culture of disregard for women will end up in a day or two. This is so deep-rooted in Indian society that it is going to be an exceptional heroic task. But it does not mean that it is implausible and far-fetched. Any reforms take time to be effective; women empowerment is not a one-day revolution, so, will also take its time as well. All we need is a concentrated effort focused in the right direction that would rest only with the liberation of women from all forms of evil.

 A small initiative taken by us:

Though a single body can't make the complete change but can give important contribution towards the change. Having the same vision in mind, our trust, the NK Charitable Trust (www.nkcharitabletrust.com) has launched some of the programs for educating and skill development of women and is moving forward continuously to take newer initiatives for the same.

 

Go Back

What really the Unity is, in my opinion?

 


Unity, a word, a phenomenon, and lots of thoughtful things included in the single word; talked almost among all the sections of the society, all walks of life and almost everywhere. What this unity is, how to define, how to implement, no one knows, no one explains …

Recently I tweeted a small thought of mine on my micro website twitter.com. Before tweeting I read the news of violence going on in Maharashtra, I was not present there at that time; but I was in grief for the people, while tweeting, I was feeling pain for those people who suffer but not because they don’t understand the meaning of unity, but because there are some people around them who don’t want the people to be united. They begin it; they begin the rage and the anger, but the people, who used to believe in unity, or if not believed, at least did not have the intention to de-unite were unknowingly involved and suffered. Some people, mostly, very few in the number, begin the violence, even without knowing what their expectation is, why they are spreading the negative vibes in the society and what they want.

That small segment of people very well knows that India is a large country. There are different regions here and different regions observe variations in tradition and culture. People belonging to diverse cultures belong to different religious faiths. They celebrate different festivals and perform varied religious rites. In spite of these diversities, Indians feel a sense of unity and oneness among them. The spoken language of one state is quite different from that of another. They wear different types of dresses. That’s why, it’s being said that India is symbol of unity in diversity.

Then why a small segment rises problems, are they uncomfortable in accepting India as a united nation, do they want that India should be divided into small segments, where as each single segment could have only one kind of culture, one kind of language, one kind of tradition and one kind of religious rights. Do these people know that this is their intention, and will all these people broadly accept that their intention is to divide India? I believe, certainly not, if asked this question, they will certainly give lots of reasons as why they are promoting or influencing the humans (Indians as a whole) to fight among themselves.

When somebody goes from one district to another, he is frequently asked, which district you belong to, same is asked when he leaves the state, which state you belong to? Do you speak Malayalam, or Tamil or Hindi or … , but when somebody goes out of the country, he goes with only one identity, an Indian, and he is only asked “ Are you an Indian?”

But the people who are living in India, not travelling abroad, forget this universal identity. They prefer to consider themselves as Hindu or Muslim, Sikh or Christian, or Bihari, Begali, Marathi, Malli or so on. Why don’t they take it simply like this, that following the religion or any culture or belief is someone’s own choice, but it should not suffer the identity of being Indian. People create groups, the group which will fight for the right of Muslims or the group which will fight for the rights of Hindus, or so on. But what is the need of formation of this type of groups, is it not only enough that there must be groups which should fight for the rights for the weaker section of the society, underprivileged section of the society, or women… does any problem come to us with a consideration whether this particular person is from Bihar or Bengal or Maharashtra, so we should harm them and leave others. No, it never happens, any natural problem comes without making any difference of region, religion or caste, so if the problem/disaster (like earthquake, fire, tsunami, etc) doesn’t make any difference on these grounds, why some people create the segment to influence the people. Have they themselves understood what they want from people, and if yes, have they this much of courage in their words that they clearly accept it – I don’t want my country to be united, I want to break it down into smaller pieces and I do refuse “ the Right to equality and unity by the Honoured Constitution of India”.

I have written all this because I am an Indian and I feel grief to see these things in my nation. But the fact is that it is not applicable for my country only, this should be considered by all the people of the world for their own country and its constitution, wherever they have born, and wherever they have got the citizenship rights. A country’s constitution is always bigger than a particular section’s wish or right. So the foremost importance and the care is sought for the nationality itself, for example, a Chinese must care first what the Chinese Constitution has defined for the sake of the nation of China, an American must think about America’s Constitution and an Australian must care for the Australia’s constitution, and so on. Any particular person, born in any country, must give first priority to what his country wants or says, and later, what he wants or thinks. So the nation doesn’t matter, but in brief and in general, every citizen should first respect and value the country through which he received this citizenship, as this is the first gift, the country has given to him … “The Citizenship” and later must come, his region, religion or other things.

 

Go Back

RERA : A BRIEF


RERA, Real Estate Regulation and Development Act, implemented in India from May 1, 2017 provides India’s real estate sector its very first regulator. It is obvious that it will bring clarified and established fair practices that would protect the interests of home buyers and end users.

Features of RERA that one should know about                                                                                            Security: According to the Act, a minimum of 70% of investors’ and buyers’ money would be kept in separate escrow account of the builder. This money can only be spent on construction of the project and the cost borne towards the land.                          Transparency: Under the act, builders are required to submit the original approved plans for their ongoing projects and the alterations that they made later to the regulator.Also, the developers can’t make any changes to the plan without the written consent of the buyer.                                                                                                                                                        Fairness:   Under the RERA act, all the properties will be sold based on the carpet area, and not on the super built area, as was generally in the practice earlier.In the event of project delay, buyers or investors are entitled to receive the entire money invested or they can retain with investment and receive monthly interest.                                                                    Quality: RERA act also states that if any issue is highlighted by the buyer to the regulator within 5 years from the date of possession, then it has to be fixed within thirty days by the builder.                                                                          Authorization-Without the registration process with the regulator, a developer would not be able to sell or offer or book any plot, apartment, house, building, or any other investment in the project. Post Registration, all the advertisement soliciting investment will have to bear the unique project –wise RERA Registration Number.

Go Back

THE POSITIVE THINKING HAS A POWERFUL EFFECT ON LIFE

 


 

When someone talks about the effect of Positive and Negative thinking, most of us talk to prefer to be positive rather than negative. But when it comes practically about having positive thoughts or act positively in a negative situation, most of us fail. Even most of us start giving the excuses, like, if it had not happened, I would have been definitely positive, and so on and on. Most of us talk about being positive but in practical, intend to have a positive thinking only in the positive situation and when negative something, big or small, is happening, start pointing out about the situations.

In my opinion, it is not a right thing. To have a positive thinking is not just being happy or keep smiling. Positive thinking is the total positive attitude towards any work, step or forthcoming result. If anything which is happening in life or work not according to the expectation, but some bitter result is just before us; to retain, remain stable and move out for the next positive result is the example of positive thinking.                                                                                                                               

The ongoing researches all over the world in the recent years have proved that the Positive Thinking brings a positive change in the life too.

A positive attitude helps you cope more easily with the daily affairs of life. It brings optimism and hope into our life, and makes it easier to fight with the problems. If we learn to adopt it as a way of life, it brings constructive changes into our life, and makes them happier, brighter and more successful.

Being positive is certainly a state of mind that is well worth developing. We must choose to be happy. In my opinion it is only a matter of choice. We must be determined that if negative thoughts enter our mind, we must refuse to think about them and simultaneously striving hard from the inner soul to get out of the problems. We must try our best to substitute the problems temporarily with happy thoughts till the time this doesn’t get changed.

The Best Solutions are:

Must choose to be optimistic, and

Must have faith in ourself, and believe that the Universe can help us.

 

Go Back

14 Blog Posts